What is LTE (Long-term Evolution): From Theory to Practice

LTE (long term evolution) technology is a crucial transitional technology in the ongoing growth from 3G to 4G. It is frequently referred to as 3.9G global standard technology that is essential to the development of the 4G network. 

In order to improve user performance, increase user capacity, and decrease system latency, LTE technology uses OFDMA for downlink, SC-FDMA for uplink, and MIMO as the wireless network. This combination significantly improves the air access technology in the 3G network and can provide peak rates of 100Mbit/s downlink and 50Mbit/s uplink within the 20MHz spectrum bandwidth.

What is LTE (Long-term Evolution) Technology?

Long-Term Evolution (LTE), defined by 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project), is a term for the cellular network that establishes a standard for mobile devices to provide higher bandwidth, reduced latency, and higher data services than 3G. It is a kind of network standard such as the frequently mentioned GSM, CDMA. LTE includes the two standards TD-LTE and LTE-FDD.

Frequency Division Duplex (FDD)

FDD uses various radio frequency points for communication when transmitting and receiving sngnals between mobile phones and base stations. When the service is symmetrical, FDD can fully allocate the uplink and downlink spectrum resources. However, the spectrum utilization rate of is FDD significantly lower when supporting asymmetrical services.

Time Division Duplex (TDD)

TDD shares radio frequency points for signal transmission and reception, and the uplink and downlink employ distinct time slots for communication. As a result, TDD may efficiently use dispersed resources by adjusting the uplink and downlink time conversion points in accordance with various services. 

TDD effectively lowers equipment costs due to its constant uplink and downlink channels, shared base stations for signal reception and transmission, and ability to share some radio frequency units. However, it will increase network infrastructure costs due to the need for time control equipment. 

On the other side, TDD uplink and downlink operate simultaneously at the same frequency, making it easier to apply power control and smart antennas. This also lowers the need for channel measurement, which decreases the complexity of mobile terminal processing overhead.

Benefits of Using LTE (Long-term Evolution)

  • High-speed: Permit data downloads at up to 100 Mb/s;
  • Low Latency: under 10 ns;
  • Low Cost: fully interoperable with GSM, UMTS, and CDMA2000 technical standards, allowing operators to upgrade their current networks to 4G networks for a fraction of the cost;
  • Long-term evolution: the standard was referred to be a progression from the 2G GSM and 3G UMTS specifications as well as the next stage in mobile telecommunications. 
  • Numerous Applications: widely used in the consumer and business/industrial sectors.

LTE and 5G SA/NSA(Standalone and Non-standalone) Deployment Difference

In particular for IoT, 5G has the potential to revolutionise network connection. More customers can benefit from better multi-Gbps peak data rates, ultra-low latency, improved dependability, huge capacity, increased availability, and a more consistent user experience thanks to 5G wireless technology.

5G non-standalone (NSA) networks, which are dependent on 4G LTE networks to function, support the majority of 5G connections. The 5G standalone (SA) solution, in contrast, only makes use of the 5G core network. 

If a gadget has integrated radios that support both 4G LTE and 5G, it will initially connect to the 4G LTE network and then use the 5G network for extra bandwidth while in use.

Use Examples of LTE Technology

Home Health Monitoring

Home health monitoring is the use of IoT technology to keep an eye on patients’ health while they are at home and to make sure the right steps are taken. Wearable medical devices are given to patients in order to monitor their vital indicators, including blood pressure, glucose levels, pulse, blood oxygen levels, and weight, and transmit the information to doctors. BLE LTE gateways are used for messaging; they collect data from patients, deliver it to the management platform of the healthcare provider, and then relay advice and information back.

Cold Chain Monitoring

Costly and time-consuming, cold chain management calls for rigorous tracking and monitoring of packages because any delay could result in expensive losses, especially when it comes to temperature-sensitive food or medications.

Because most cellular carriers and the majority of the United States already have a sizable 4G network that devices can access, LTE-M is adaptable and effective over a wide range of distances. Due to its ability to quickly switch connections from tower to tower without a significant power drain, it may also be better suited for logistics and asset tracking and management.

What is LTE (Long-term Evolution): From Theory to Practice

Public Transit Location Tracking

Buses may be effectively tracked using LTE, which pulls position data every 10 seconds. Passengers find updated bus location information to be especially helpful. They can get information about possible delays right to their phones thanks to LTE.

Enhancing data communication is essential whenever a hazardous situation occurs near or on a bus. Public Transit employees and law police have access to a live view of the incident thanks to the new high-speed LTE.

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