Artificial Intelligence

A Meme’s Glimpse into the Pinnacle of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Progress in a Mamba Series: LLM Enlightenment

In the dynamic field of Artificial Intelligence (AI), the trajectory from one foundational model to another has represented an amazing paradigm shift. The escalating series of models, including Mamba, Mamba MOE, MambaByte, and the latest approaches like Cascade, Layer-Selective Rank Reduction (LASER), and Additive Quantization for Language Models (AQLM) have revealed new levels of cognitive power. The famous ‘Big Brain’ meme has succinctly captured this progression and has humorously illustrated the rise from ordinary competence to extraordinary brilliance as one delf into the intricacies of each language model.


Mamba is a linear-time sequence model that stands out for its rapid inference capabilities. Foundation models are predominantly built on the Transformer architecture due to its effective attention mechanism. However, Transformers encounter efficiency issues when dealing with long sequences. In contrast to conventional attention-based Transformer topologies, with Mamba, the team introduced structured State Space Models (SSMs) to address processing inefficiencies on extended sequences.

Mamba’s unique feature is its capacity for content-based reasoning, enabling it to spread or ignore information based on the current token. Mamba demonstrated rapid inference, linear sequence length scaling, and great performance in modalities such as language, audio, and genomics. It is distinguished by its linear scalability while managing lengthy sequences and its quick inference capabilities, allowing it to achieve a five times higher throughput rate than conventional Transformers.

Mamba MOE

MoE-Mamba has been built upon the foundation of Mamba and is the subsequent version that uses Mixture of Experts (MoE) power. By integrating SSMs with MoE, this model surpasses the capabilities of its predecessor and exhibits increased performance and efficiency. In addition to improving training efficiency, the integration of MoE keeps Mamba’s inference performance improvements over conventional Transformer models. 

Mamba MOE serves as a link between traditional models and the field of big-brained language processing. One of its main achievements is the effectiveness of MoE-Mamba’s training. While requiring 2.2 times fewer training steps than Mamba, it achieves the same level of performance.

MambaByte MOE

Token-free language models have represented a significant shift in Natural Language Processing (NLP), as they learn directly from raw bytes, bypassing the biases inherent in subword tokenization. However, this strategy has a problem as byte-level processing results in substantially longer sequences than token-level modeling. This length increase challenges ordinary autoregressive Transformers, whose quadratic complexity for sequence length usually makes it difficult to scale effectively for longer sequences.

MambaByte is a solution to this problem as is a modified version of the Mamba state space model that is intended to function autoregressively with byte sequences. It removes subword tokenization biases by operating directly on raw bytes, marking a step towards token-free language modeling. Comparative tests revealed that MambaByte outperformed other models built for comparable jobs in terms of computing performance while handling byte-level data. 

Self-reward fine-tuning

The concept of self-rewarding language models has been introduced with the goal of training the language model itself to produce incentives on its own. Using a technique known as LLM-as-a-Judge prompting, the language model assesses and rewards its own outputs for doing this. This strategy represents a substantial shift from depending on outside reward structures, and it can result in more flexible and dynamic learning processes.

With self-reward fine-tuning, the model takes charge of its own fate in the search for superhuman agents. After undergoing iterative DPO (Decision Process Optimization) training, the model becomes more adept at obeying instructions and rewarding itself with high-quality items. MambaByte MOE with Self-Reward Fine-Tuning represents a step toward models that continuously enhance in both directions, accounting for rewards and obeying commands.


A unique technique called Cascade Speculative Drafting (CS Drafting) has been introduced to improve the effectiveness of Large Language Model (LLM) inference by tackling the difficulties associated with speculative decoding. Speculative decoding provides preliminary outputs with a smaller, faster draft model, which is evaluated and improved upon by a bigger, more precise target model. 

Though this approach aims to lower latency, there are certain inefficiencies with it.

First, speculative decoding is inefficient because it relies on slow, autoregressive generation, which generates tokens sequentially and frequently causes delays. Second, regardless of how each token affects the overall quality of the output, this strategy allows the same amount of time to generate them all, regardless of how important they are.

CS. Drafting introduces both vertical and horizontal cascades to address inefficiencies in speculative decoding. While the horizontal cascade maximizes drafting time allocation, the vertical cascade removes autoregressive generation. Compared to speculative decoding, this new method can speed up processing by up to 72% while keeping the same output distribution.

LASER (LAyer-SElective Rank Reduction)

A counterintuitive approach referred to as LAyer-SElective Rank Reduction (LASER) has been introduced to improve LLM performance, which works by selectively removing higher-order components from the model’s weight matrices.  LASER ensures optimal performance by minimizing autoregressive generation inefficiencies by using a draft model to produce a bigger target model. 

LASER is a post-training intervention that doesn’t call for more information or settings. The major finding is that LLM performance can be greatly increased by choosing decreasing specific components of the weight matrices, in contrast to the typical trend of scaling-up models. The generalizability of the strategy has been proved through extensive tests conducted across multiple language models and datasets.

AQLM (Additive Quantization for Language Models)

AQLM introduces Multi-Codebook Quantization (MCQ) techniques, delving into severe LLM compression. This method, which builds upon Additive Quantization, achieves more accuracy at very low bit counts per parameter than any other recent method. Additive quantization is a sophisticated method that combines several low-dimensional codebooks to represent model parameters more effectively. 

On benchmarks such as WikiText2, AQLM delivers unprecedented compression while retaining high perplexity. This strategy greatly outperformed earlier methods when applied to LLAMA 2 models of different sizes, with lower perplexity scores indicating higher performance. 

DRUGS (Deep Random micro-Glitch Sampling)

This sampling technique redefines itself by introducing unpredictability into the model’s reasoning, which fosters originality. DRµGS presents a new method of sampling by introducing randomness in the thought process instead of after generation. This permits a variety of plausible continuations and provides adaptability in accomplishing different outcomes. It sets new benchmarks for effectiveness, originality, and compression.


To sum up, the progression of language modeling from Mamba to the ultimate set of incredible models is evidence of the unwavering quest for perfection. This progression’s models each provide a distinct set of advancements that advance the field. The meme’s representation of growing brain size is not just symbolic, it also captures the real increase in creativity, efficiency, and intellect that is inherent in each new model and approach.

This article was inspired by this Reddit post. All credit for this research goes to the researchers of these projects. Also, don’t forget to follow us on Twitter and Google News. Join our 36k+ ML SubReddit, 41k+ Facebook Community, Discord Channel, and LinkedIn Group.

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Tanya Malhotra is a final year undergrad from the University of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun, pursuing BTech in Computer Science Engineering with a specialization in Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning.
She is a Data Science enthusiast with good analytical and critical thinking, along with an ardent interest in acquiring new skills, leading groups, and managing work in an organized manner.


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