Electrical transformers are devices that transfer power between circuits with altering voltage level but no change in frequency. They are built to utilize AC supply, indicating that the supply voltage fluctuation is affected by the current fluctuation. Thus, a rise in voltage will cause a rise in the current and vice versa.
Electrical transformers help enhance the efficiency and safety of power systems by increasing and reducing voltage levels as required. They are leveraged in an array of industrial and residential applications, most crucially utilized in regulating and distributing electricity over long distances.
Construction of Electrical Transformers
An electrical transformer has three main components: primary winding, a secondary winding, and a magnetic core. The primary winding is linked to a power source from where magnetic flux is generated initially. The coils are insulated from one another, and the chief flux is created in the primary winding, which then passes to the magnetic core and gets connected to the secondary winding via a low resistance route.
The core transmits the flux to the secondary winding to produce a magnetic circuit that ends the flux. A low reluctance route is positioned inside the core to boost the flux linkage. Further, the secondary winding aids to complete the flux movement that started at the primary part, which utilizes the core and gets to the secondary winding.
Moreover, the secondary winding picks momentum as both windings are wound on one core, and therefore their magnetic fields assist in generating motion. In all kinds of electrical transformers, the magnetic core is built by placing laminated steel sheets with only the minimum needed air-gap left between them to ensure the continuity of the magnetic path.
How Does it Work?
Electrical transformers use Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction to function. This law states, ‘Rate of change of flux linkage concerning time is directly proportional to the induced EMF in a conductor or coil.’
An electrical transformer’s physical basis remains in the mutual induction between two circuits connected by a common magnetic flux. A transformer has primary and secondary windings, as mentioned earlier. The windings share a laminated magnetic core, and the mutual inductions occurring between these circuits assist in the transfer of electric power from one place to another.
The flux linkage change rates will vary based on the amount of connected flux between the two windings. To make sure of maximum flux linkage between the two windings, a low resistance route is commonly placed for both windings. This forms the transformer’s core and improves performance efficiency.
By applying an alternating voltage to the windings in the primary part, an alternating flux is created in the core. This connects both windings to generate EMF in the primary and secondary sides. EMF in the secondary winding creates a load current if a load has been linked to the secondary side.
In this manner, electrical transformers transmit AC power from the primary to the secondary circuit by converting electrical energy value and altering the voltage level without changing the frequency.
Uses of Electrical Transformers
Electrical transformers are mainly utilized in the following ways:
- Increasing or reducing the voltage level in AC circuits
- Raising or lowering the inductor value of a capacitor or inductor in an AC circuit
- Isolation of two power circuits
- Preventing DC passage between circuits
- Raising the voltage level at the power generation site before the distribution and transmission happen.
- Electrical transformers are commonly used in power generation systems, windmills, commercial establishments, industries, railways, and pumping stations.
We recommend that you consult a renowned, trusted provider or qualified professional to get advice on critical electrical systems such as electrical transformers for your business or commercial needs. They have the knowledge to suggest the best solutions for your requirements.